About one tenth of the world’s ants are close relatives; they all belong to just one genus out of 323, called Pheidole. “If you go into any tropical forest and take a stroll, you will step on one of these ants,” says Okinawa Institute of Science and Technology Graduate University’s Professor Evan Economo. Pheidole fill niches in ecosystems ranging from rainforests to deserts. Yet until now, researchers have never had a global perspective of how the many species of Pheidole evolved and spread across the Earth. Economo, researchers in the Biodiversity and Biocomplexity Unit, and colleagues at the University of Michigan compared gene sequences from 300 species of Pheidole from around the world.